Carlos Alvarado

Assistant Professor of Research in Psychiatric Medicine

University of Virginia School of Medicine

Division of Perceptual Studies


Ph.D. in psychology, University of Edinburgh, 1997.

MA in history, Duke University, 1989.

MS in parapsychology, John F. Kennedy University, (California), 1981.

BA in psychology, University of Puerto Rico, 1978.


Recipient of Harold and Sherry Crasilneck Award for Best Paper on Hypnosis presented by the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, March, 15 2010, for the article entitled "Ambroise August Leibeault and Psychic Phenomena", published in Volume 52, Number 2, October 2009.

Recipient of the 2010 Outstanding Career Award, granted by the Parapsychological Association Board.

Professional Appointments

2013: Visiting Scholar, Rhine Research Center

June 2010-January 2013: Scholar in Residence, Atlantic University, Virginia Beach, VA

October 2003-present: Assistant Professor of Research in Psychiatric Medicine, Division of Perceptual Studies, Department of Psychiatric Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA

March 2003-present: Adjunct Research Faculty, Institute of Transpersonal Psychology

July 2000 – present: Chairman of Domestic and International Programs, Parapsychology Foundation

February 1999 - May 1999: Project Director, Behavioral Sciences Research Institute, Medical School, University of Puerto Rico

February 1998 - December 1998: Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, Scotland)

June 1996 - December 1997: Research Associate, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh (Edinburgh, Scotland).

September 1982-May 1986: Research Assistant, Division of Parapsychology, Department of Behavioral Medicine and Psychiatry, University of Virginia.

February 1982-August 1982: Assistant Registrar, Inter-American University, Puerto Rico.


Research interests: psychological and phenomenological aspects of spontaneous phenomena, particularly out-of-body experiences; history of parapsychology; normal dissociative experience.

Current publications:

2014: On W.J. Crawford's Studies of Physical Mediumship. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 28, 351-357. (pdf)

2014: G. Stanley Hall on "Mystic or Borderline Phenomena". Journal of Scientific Exploration, 28, 75-93. (pdf)

2013: Mediumship and psychical research. In C. Moreman (Ed.), The Spiritualist Movement: Speaking with the Dead in America and Around the World (vol 2, pp.127-144). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

2013: (third author, with P. Le Malefan and R. Evrard). Spiritist delusions and spiritism in the nosography of French psychiatry (1850-1950). History of Psychiatry, 24, 477-491.

2013: Studying Ernersto Bozzano: Suggestions for future historical studies. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 77, 147-163.

2013: The influence of Reichenbach’s concept of Od. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 27, 111-115. (pdf)

2012: Dream ESP studies before Maimonides: An overview, 1880s-1950s. Aquém e Além do Cerebro: Behind and Beyond the Brain (pp. 77-101). Porto, Portugal: Fundação Bial.

2012: Explorations of the features of out-of-body experiences: An overview and critique of the work of Robert Crookall. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 76, 65-82. (pdf)

2012: Distortions of the past. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 26, 147-168. (pdf)

2012: (First author, with N.L Zingrone). Classic Text No. 90; The Pathology and Treatment of Mediomania, by Frederic Rowland Marvin (1874). History of Psychiatry, 23, 229-244. (pdf)

2012: (First author, with R. Evrard). The psychic sciences in France: Historical notes on the Annales des Sciences Psychiques. Journal of Scientific Explorarion, 26, 117-140. (pdf)

2011: The history of hypnosis and psychic phenomena. Psychological Hypnosis, 20(3), 5-9.

2011: Prescribing for parapsychology: Note on J. B. Rhine’s writings in the Journal of Parapsychology. Australian Journal of Parapsychology, 11, 89-99. (pdf)

2011: Eusapia Palladino: An autobiographical essay. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 25, 77-101. (pdf)

2011: (First author with M. Nahm). Psychic phenomena and the vital force: Hereward Carrington on “Vital energy and psychical phenomena.” Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 75, 91-103. (pdf)

2011: (second author, with E. Cardeña). Altered consciousness from the age of Enlightenment through mid-20th century. In E. Cardeña and M. Winkelman (Eds.), Altering Consciousness: Multidisciplinary Perspectives: History, Culture and the Humanities (Vol.1, pp.89-112). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC Clio.

2011: Psychic phenomena and the mind-body problem: Historical notes on a neglected conceptual tradition. In A. Moreira-Almeida and F.S. Santos ( Eds.), Exploring Frontiers of the Mind-Brain Relationship ( pp.35-51). New York: Springer Science+Business Media.

2010:(first author, with Stanley Krippner). Nineteenth century pioneers in the study of dissociation: William James and psychical research. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17, 19-43.

2010: Introduction: Classic text No. 84: ‘Divisions of personality and spiritism’ by Alfred Binet (1896). History of Psychiatry, 21, 487-492.

2010: Investigating mental mediumship: Research suggestions from the historical literature. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 24, 267-294. (pdf)

2010: Nineteenth-century suggestion and magnetism: Hypnosis at the International Congress of Physiological Psychology (1889). Contemporary Hypnosis, 27, 48-60.

2010: Online resources for the history of out-of-body experiences and death-related phenomena. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 28, 143-162.

2010: Notas históricas sobre el rol de la mediumnidad en parapsicología [Historical notes on the role of mediumship in parapsychology]. E-Boletín Psi, 5(2), unpaginated

2010: (second author, with Zingrone, N.L., & Cardeña, E.) Out-of-body experiences, physical body activity and posture: Responses from a survey conducted in Scotland. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 198, 163-165. (pdf)

2009: Discussing parapsychology at Utrecht: The First International Conference of Parapsychological Studies. In C.A. Roe, W. Kramer & L. Coly (Eds.), Utrecht II: Charting the Future of Parapsychology (pp. 245-288). New York: Parapsychology Foundation / The Netherlands: Het Johan Borgmanfonds Foundation.

2009: Online materials for the study of hypnosis. Psychological Hypnosis, 18(2), 4-8, 12-13.

2009: Early and modern developments in the psychological approach to out-of-body experiences. In C.D. Murray (Ed.), Psychological Scientific Perspectives on Out-of-Body and Near-Death Experiences (pp. 1-22). New York: Nova Science.

2009: The spirit in out-of-body experiences: Historical and conceptual notes. In B. Batey (Ed.), Spirituality, Science and the Paranormal (pp. 3-19). Bloomfield, CT: Academy of Spirituality and Paranormal Studies.

2009: Ambroise August Liébeault and psychic phenomena. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 52, 111-121. (pdf)

2009: Late nineteenth and early twentieth century discussions of animal magnetism. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 57, 366-381.

2009: Modern animal magnetism: The work of Alexandre Baréty, Émile Boirac, and Julian Ochorowicz. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 1-15. (pdf) (Posted online with permission of the Australian Society of Hypnosis)

2009: (second author, with N.L. Zingrone). Pleasurable Western adult near-death experiences: Features, circumstances and incidence. In J.M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The Handbook of Near-Death Experiences (pp. 17-40). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.

2009: (second author with N.L. Zingrone, and N. Agee). Psychological correlates of aura vision: Psychic experiences,dissociation, absorption, and synaesthesia-like experiences. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 131-168. (pdf) (Posted online with permission of the Australian Society of Hypnosis)

2009: Nineteenth-century hysteria and hypnosis: A historical note on Blanche Wittmann. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 37, 21-36.

2009: Leonora E. Piper online: Some Web resources. Psypioneer, 5, 87-92.

2008: (First author, with N.L. Zingrone). Out-of-body experiences and headaches: A research note. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 72, 107-110.

2008: Note on Charles Richet's "La Suggestion Mentale et le Calcul des Probalilites" (1884). Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 543-548.

2008: Charles Richet on "The Limits of Psychic and Metapsychic Science." Psypioneer, 4, 198-207.

2008:Mesmerism online: A bibliographic review. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 115-120. (pdf)

2008: A list of online materials for the historical study of psychical research and related subjects. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 396-407.

2008: Note on online books and articles about the history of dissociation. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 9, 107-118.

2008: (first author, with N.L. Zingrone). Ian Stevenson and the modern study of ESP experiences. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 22, 44-53.

2007-2008: (First author, with N.L Zingrone). Interrelationships of psychic experiences, dream recall and lucid dreams in a survey with Spanish participants. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 27, 63-69.

2007: (second author, with A. Moreira-Almeida, & W. Zangari). Transtornos dissociativos (ou conversivos) [Dissociative (or conversion) disorders]. In M. Rodrigues, L. Neto, & H. Elkis (Eds.), Psiquiatria Basica (2nd ed., pp. 285-297). Porto Alegre, Brazil: Artmed.

2007: Online historical materials about psychic phenomena. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21, 607-615. (pdf)

2007: (First author, with F.R. Machado, W. Zangari, & N.L. Zingrone).Perspectivas históricas da influência da mediunidade na construção de idéias psicológicas e psiquiátricas [Historical perspectives of the influence of mediumship on the construction of psychological and psychiatric ideas]. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 34 (supp.1), 42-53. (pdf)

2007: Remarks on Ernesto Bozzano's La Psiche Domina la Materia. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 25, 189-195. (pdf)

2007: Bibliography of books and articles about mesmerism, Spiritualism, psychical research, and related topics in Google Book Search. Psypioneer, 3, 113-120

2007: Psychical research in the New York Times. Psypioneer, 6, 64-67. (pdf)

2007: On the use of the term out-of-body experience. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 71, 103-106.

2006: Neglected Near-Death Phenomena. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 24, 131-151. (pdf)

2006: (First author with W. Kramer) Note on the term telergy. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 70, 170-176. (pdf)

2006: Human radiations: Concepts of force in mesmerism, spiritualism and psychical research. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 70, 138-162. (pdf)

2006: Neglected Near-Death Phenomena, Journal of Near-Death Studies, 24, 131-151.

2006: (First author with M. Biondi and W. Kramer) Historical Notes on Psychic Phenomena in Specialised Journals, European Journal of Parapsychology, 21, 58-87. (pdf)

2005: Historical writings on parapsychology and its contributions to psychology. Psypioneer, 1, 270-274. (pdf)

2005: Research on non-pathological dissociation. Ciencias de la Conducta, 20, 31-56.

2005: Ernesto Bozzano and the phenomena of bilocation. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 23, 207-238.

2005: (Second author with E. Kelly). Frederic William Henry Myers, 1843-1901. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 34. (pdf)

2004: (First author with N.L. Zingrone). Experiencias parapsicológicas, absorción y sueños: Un estudio con estudiantes de psicología de Puerto Rico [Parapsychological experiences, absorption and dreams: A study with psychology students from Puerto Rico ]. In F.E. da Silva (Ed.), II Encontro Psi: Refletindo sobre o Futuro da Parapsicologia [II Psi Encounter: Reflexions on the Future of Parapsychology] (pp. 82-91). Curitiba , Brazil : Campus Universitario Bezerra de Menezes, Faculdades Integradas "Espírita."

2004: On the centenary of Frederic W.H. Myers’s Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death.Journal of Parapsychology, 68, 3-43. (pdf)

2004: Revision histórica del concepto de la radiación humana [Historical review of the concept of human radiation]. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal, 15, 9-30.

2003: The concept of survival of bodily death and the development of parapsychology. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 67.2, 65-95. (pdf)

2003: (First author with N.L. Zingrone). Exploring the factors related to the aftereffects of out-of-body experiences. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 67.3, 161-183. (pdf)

2002: Guest editorial: Thoughts on the study of spontaneous cases. Journal of Parapsychology, 66, 115-125.

2002: Dissociation in Britain during the late nineteenth century: The Society for Psychical Research, 1882-1900. Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 3, 9-33. (pdf)

2001: (first author, with E. Coly, L. Coly, and N.L. Zingrone). Fifty years of supporting parapsychology: The Parapsychology Foundation (1951-2001). International Journal of Parapsychology, 12, 1-26. (pdf)

2001: Features of out-of-body experiences in relation to perceived closeness to death. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 331-332.

2000: Out-of-body experiences. In E. Cardeña, S.J. Lynn, & S. Krippner (Eds.), Varieties of anomalous experiences (pp. 183-218). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

1999: Nota sobre la teoría sin base empírica en la parapsicología iberoamericana contemporánea [Note on theory without scientific support in contemporary Ibero American parapsychology]. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal, 10, 146-156. (pdf)

1999: (First author with N.L. Zingrone). Out-of-body experiences among readers of a Spanish New Age magazine. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 63, 65-85. (pdf)

1999: Apuntes para una introducción a la parapsicología [Notes for an introduction to parapsychology] New York: Parapsychology Foundation.

1998-99: (First author with N.L. Zingrone). A study of the features of out-of-body experiences in relation to Sylvan Muldoon's claims. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, 89-99. (pdf)

1998-99: (First author with N.L. Zingrone & K. Dalton). Out-of-body experiences: Alterations of consciousness and the five-factor model of personality. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 18, 297-317.

1998-99: (Second author, with N.L. Zingrone & K. Dalton). Psi experiences and the "Big Five": Relating the NEO-PI-R to the experience claims of experimental subjects. European Journal of Parapsychology, 14, 31-51. (pdf)

1998: Sleepwalking and spontaneous parapsychological experiences: A research note. Journal of Parapsychology, 62, 349-351.

1998: ESP and altered states of consciousness: An overview of conceptual and research trends. Journal of Parapsychology, 62, 27-63. (pdf)

1997-98: (First author with N.L. Zingrone). Factors related to the depth of near-death experiences: Testing the “embellishment over time” hypothesis. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 17, 339-344.

1996: Exploring the features of spontaneous psychic experiences. European Journal of Parapsychology, 12, 61-74. (pdf)

1996: Hacia una parapsicologia cientifica en America Latina [Towards a scientific parapsychology in Latin America]. Revista Argentina de Psicologia Paranormal, 7, 223-234. (pdf)

1994: (First author with N.L. Zingrone) Individual differences in aura vision: relationships to visual imagery and imaginative fantasy experiences. European Journal of Parapsychology, 10,1-30. (pdf)

1993: (First author, with White, R. A., & Zingrone, N. L.) Bibliography of the published works of Charles Honorton. Journal of Parapsychology, 57, 215-226.

1992: The psychological approach to out-of-body experiences: A review of early and modern developments. Journal of Psychology, 126, 237-250.

1991: Iatrogenesis and dissociation: A historical note. Dissociation, 4, 36-38. (pdf)

1989: Trends in the study of out-of-body experiences: An overview of developments since the nineteenth century. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 3, 27-42. (pdf)

1989: Dissociation and state-specific psychophysiology during the nineteenth century. Dissociation, 2, 160-168. (pdf)

1982: ESP during out-of-body experiences: A review of experimental studies. Journal of Parapsychology, 46, 209-230. (pdf)

1982: Historical perspective in parapsychology: Some practical considerations. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 51, 265-271. (pdf)

1981: (Second author, with A. Martínez-Taboas) Poltergeist agents: A review of research trends and conceptualizations. European Journal of Parapsychology, 4, 99-110. (pdf)

Essay Book Reviews

2011: On doubles and excursions from the physical body, 1876-1956 Journal of Scientific Exploration 25, 563-580.

2009: Frederic W.H. Myers, psychical research, and psychology: An Essay review of Trevor Hamilton's Immortal Longings: F.W.H. Myers and the Victorian Search for Lfe After Death. Journal of the Society for Pscyhical Research, 73 150-170.

2007: Psicologia Psicoanalisis Parapsicologia, by G. Caratelli; Del Hipnotismo a Freud: Orígenes Históricos de la Psicoterapia, by J.M. López Piñero; The Bifurcation of the Self: The History and Theory of Dissociation and Its Disorders, by R. W. Rieber; Premiers Écrits Psychologiques (1885-1888) Oeuvres Choises I, by P. Janet; L’Hypnose: Charcot Face à Bernheim: L’École de la Salpêtrière Face à l’École de Nancy, by S. Nicolas; Hypnotisme, Double Conscience et Altérations de la Personnalité: Le Cas Félida X (1887), by E.E. Azam. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 21, 163-174. (pdf)

2006: Locus Solus: Lombroso e la Fotografia, edited by S. Turzio; and The Perfect Medium, by C. Chéroux et al. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 20, 115-128. (pdf)

2005: Folie et spiritisme, by Pascal Le Maléfan; Naissance d’une science humaine, by Régine Plas; and Carl Gustav Jung e os Fenômenos Psíquicos, by Carlos Antonio Fragoso Guimarães. Journal of Scientific Exploration, 19, 261-268. (pdf)

1994: Panoramic views of the history of parapsychology: A review of three recent books. Journal of Parapsychology, 58, 201-211. (pdf)

Professional activities


2002-2003 and 1995: President, Parapsychological Association

2002-currently: Assistant Editor, Advances in Parapsychological Research

2001: Program Chair, Parapsychological Association Convention, New York City

2001-Currently: Member of Editorial Board, Journal of Near-Death Studies

2000-Currently: Series Editor, Parapsychological Monographs

2000-Currently: Associate Editor, International Journal of Parapsychology

2000-Currently: Member of Advisory Board, Instituto de Medicina y Tecnología Avanzada de la Conducta (Institute of Medicine and Advanced Technology of Behavior), Juárez, Mexico.

1995-Currently: President, Asociación Iberoamericana de Parapsicología

1986-1993: Visiting Scholar, Institute for Parapsychology, Foundation for Research on the Nature of Man, Durham, NC.

1986: President, Southeastern Regional Parapsychological Association


1998-Currently: Member, Asociación de Psicólogos de Puerto Rico

1996-Currently: Member, Association for the Study of Dreams

1995-Currently: Member, International Society for the Study of Dissociation

1990-1995, 1997-1999, 2000-2003: Member, Board of Directors, Parapsychological Association

1989-Currently: Member, Cheiron: International Society for the History of the Behavioral Sciences

1979-Currently: Member, Parapsychological Association

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